詞彙key terms

No two languages are identical. There is always a danger of distorting the original meaning when translating technical terms. That’s why when one learns arts in other cultures like Judo, Karate, or even Buddhism, one often has those terms left as transliterations. After all, even for learners of Chinese martial arts who are Chinese, they may not and need not realise the literal meanings of the technical terms during their practice.

The great translator Abbot Xuanzang (玄奘; fl. 602 – 664) set “five types of terms that are not to be translated” (五不翻) when he and his team translated a great amount of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese. Among them are those for which a Chinese equivalent cannot be found (此無) and those who already been widely used, paying respect to previous translator (順古). Some terms have dual meanings, or even multiple meanings. An example is 子午, which may mean direction, hour in the clock, or even year, month and day. As such, we will leave the “twelve key words” (勾、摟、採、掛、刁-進、刁-打、粘、黏、貼、靠) in their transliterations (gōulǒucǎiguàdiāo-jìndiāo-dǎzhānniántiēkào). The same applies to locations and names, with the following two clarifications:

Master Lo (羅光玉): though the Putonghua Pinyin is Luo Guang-yu, we follow Brother Hon-Chiu Wong’s practice of using Lo Kuang-yü,
Master Wong (黃漢勛): Wong Hon Fan is used since this was what appeared in his Hong Kong Identity Card.

In addition, we would like to standardise the name of our school as (Northern) Praying Mantis School of Chinese martial arts.

Having said all that, to make it easy for non-Chinese speakers, we have compiled here a list of key terms with an aim for standardisation.

步法Stances
騎馬Horse-riding stance
登山Mountain-climbing stance
跨虎Straddling tiger stance
入環Half-kneeling stance
七星Seven star stance
撲腿Low stance
中式Neutral stance
吞塌Reverse mountain-climbing stance
坐盤Sitting twisted legs stance
偷步Twisted legs stance
  
掌法Palm techniques
插掌Forward palm
屯掌Impulsive palm
挑掌Upswing palm
齊掌Sideways palm
滾掌(滾手)Outward slapping palm
漏掌(漏手)Inward slapping palm
反掌Downward slapping palm
腰斬Waist chopping palm
  
捶法Fist techniques
補捶Supplemented fist
統捶Forward fist
圈捶Circular fist
崩捶Downward fist
挫捶Upward fist
截捶Sideways arm-strike
劈捶Straight downward fist
窩肚捶Forward belly-pointing fist
  
指法Finger techniques
刁手Mantis claw
封手Lock claw
鎖喉Throat choke
取眼Eye poke
勾摟採手Claw-fist triple set
纏絲手Twisting grip
  
肘法Elbow techniques
撞肘Direct elbow-strike
疊肘Sideways elbow-strike
  
腿法Leg techniques
軋腿Lateral sole-strike
蹬腿Straight sole-strike
踢腿Direct kick
揪腿Upward sole-strike
閉門腿Kick and exit
掃膛腿Low ankle-swipe
擺蓮Full leg-swing
旋風腿Leaping leg-swing
  
兵器Weapons
單刀Sabre
雙刀Double sabre
春秋大刀Kwan sabre
Spear
Sword
Staff
三節棍Three-section Cudgel
  
套路Sets
崩步拳Squashing Steps
十八叟拳Eighteen Elders
躲剛拳Evading Rigidity
插捶拳Stabbing Fist
白猿出洞拳White Monkey leaving Cave
白猿偷桃拳White Monkey Stealing Peach
梅花拳Plum Blossom Set
梅花落拳Plum Blossom Falling
梅花手拳Plum Blossom Hands
螳螂出洞拳Praying Mantis leaving Cave
螳螂偷桃拳Praying Mantis Stealing Peach
大架式拳Large Posture
小架式拳Small Posture
大番車拳Large Cartwheel
小番車拳Small Cartwheel
摘要Highlights
醉羅漢Drunken Luohan
攔截拳Interception
連環錦套拳Interlocking Treasures
柔靈拳Gentle and Agile
四路奔打拳Charging in Four Directions
左右連環扣Bilateral Interlocks
領拳Interactive sets
  
兵器套路Weapon sets
八卦刀Bagua Sabre set
燕青單刀Yanqin Sabre set
六合雙刀Six-way Combination Double Sabre set
春秋大刀Kwan sabre set
梅花槍Plum Blossom Spear set
八仙劍Eight Fairies Sword set
子午劍Ziwu Sword set
五郎棍Brother Five Staff set
六合棍Six-way Combination Staff set
虎尾三節棍Tiger Tail Three-section Cudgel set
單刀對槍Sabre against Spear
雙刀對槍Double Sabre against Spear
雙匕對槍Double Dagger against Spear
空手破單刀Overcoming Sabre with Empty Hands
空手破雙匕Overcoming Double Dagger with Empty Hands
三節棍對槍Three-section Cudgel against Spear
  
其他Others
羅漢功Luohan Exercises
散手Combat skills Training set